Latest Geography Optional Syllabus Book for UPSC Exam pdf | Geography Optional Syllabus Book Pdf for UPSC Exam India 2021

By | March 29, 2021
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Geography Optional Syllabus Book pdf for UPSC Exam

Download Syllabus Of Geography Optional Syllabus Subject for UPSC official released on

Geography Optional Syllabus for UPSC Exam Pdf

Syllabus of Geography Optional Subject for UPSC Exam available in PDF, below with all description provided below, go through the article for more details.

UPSC Geography Optional Syllabus & Exam pattern 

If you have applied for the UPSC Exam, then you can download officially updated Geography Optional Syllabus of UPSC which will available to applicants online at the Live Portal of  UPSC.

The UPSC Mains Optional papers is a total 500 marks paper. The optional papers are divided into Papers I & II.

Each carrying 250 marks . For the UPSC Main exam, the candidates are required to select one optional subject from the list of subjects given.

Geography Optional Syllabus Book pdf for UPSC Exam India 2021

Geography Optional  Syllabus Book for UPSC Exam pdf

Geography Optional UPSC Exam Syllabus is described below in detailed brief format. You can go through and start the preparation for the UPSC Exam.

So, each and every applicant requested to visit official web Panel of UPSC to download their live update regarding UPSC exam.

Complete Paper Syllabus Geography Optional Book pdf for UPSC Exam 
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Geography Optional Syllabus for UPSC

In the UPSC Optional Subject list include 48 subjects, from that all one can be choose by the candidate for both the papers. Each optional subject divide of two papers(Paper I and Paper II).Each paper is 250 marks , total of 500 marks.

UPSC Geography Optional Syllabus Paper – Paper I 

  1. Physical Geography
    1. Geomorphology
      • Origin and evolution of the earth’s crust;
      • Physical conditions of the earth’s interior;
      • Continental drift;
      • Plate tectonics
      • endogenetic and exogenetic forces.
      • Recent views on mountain building;
      • Channel morphology;
      • Fundamentals of geomagnetism;
      • Factors controlling landform development;
      • Earthquakes and Tsunamis;
      • Slope development;
      • Concepts of geomorphic cycles and Landscape development;
      • Isostasy ;
      • Erosion surfaces;
      • Geosynclines Denudation chronology;
      • Vulcanicityand Applied Geomorphology: Geohydrology,
        economic geology and environment.
    2. Climatology
      • Heat budget of the earth;
      • atmospheric stability and instability.
      • Planetary and local winds;
      • Monsoons and jet streams;
      • Air masses and frontogenesis, Temperate and tropical cyclones;
      • Weather and Climate;
      • Atmospheric circulation;
      • Koppen’s, Thornthwaite’s and Trewartha’s classification of world climates;
      • Temperature and pressure belts of the world;
      • Hydrological cycle;
      • Types and distribution of precipitation;
      • Global climatic change and role and response of man in climatic changes, Applied climatology, and Urban climate
    3. Oceanography
      • Temperature and salinity of the oceans;
      • Marine resources: biotic, mineral and energy resources;
      • Coral reefs, Waves, currents and tides;
      • Bottom topography of the Atlantic ,Indian and Pacific Oceans;
      • Heat and salt budgets, Ocean deposits;
      • coral bleaching;
      • sea level changes;
      • law of the sea and marine pollution.
    4. Biogeography
      • Soil profile;
      • Soil erosion, Genesis of soils;
      • Problems of deforestation and conservation measures;
      • Social forestry;
      • Wildlife;
      • Classification and distribution of soils;
      • agro-forestry;
      • Factors influencing world distribution of plants and animals;
      • Major gene pool centers and Degradation and conservation
    5. Environmental Geography
      • Global and regional ecological changes and imbalances;
      • Ecosystem their management and conservation;
      • Human ecological adaptations;
      • Influence of man on ecology and environment;
      • Environmental degradation, management, and conservation;
      • Principle of ecology;
      • Environmental policy;
      • Biodiversity and sustainable development;
      • Environmental hazards and remedial measures;
      • Environmental education and legislation.
  2. Human Geography
    1. Perspectives in Human Geography
      • Dichotomy and dualism; Environmentalism;
      • Quantitative revolution and locational analysis;
      • regional synthesis;
      • Areal differentiation;
      • radical, behavioral, human and welfare approaches;
      • religions and secularisation;
      • Languages, Human development index and Cultural regions of the world.
    2. Economic Geography
      • World resources and their distribution;
      • Energy crisis;
      • the limits to growth;
      • World agriculture:typology of agricultural regions;
      • agricultural inputs and productivity;
      • World economic development:patterns of world trade.measurement and problems;
      • Food and nutrition problems;
      • famine:causes, effects and remedies;
      • Food security;
      • World industries: locational patterns and problems;
    3. Population and Settlement Geography
      • Causes and consequences of migration;
      • concepts of over-under-and optimum population;
      • Growth and distribution of world population;
      • Population theories, world population problems and policies, demographic attributes;
      • Social well-being and quality of life;
      • Population as social capital.
      • Types and patterns of rural settlements; Hierarchy of urban settlements;
      • Urban morphology: Concepts of primate city and rank-size rule;
      • Environmental issues in rural settlements; Functional classification of towns;
      • Sphere of urban influence;
      • Rural urban fringe;
      • Satellite towns;
      • Problems and remedies of urbanization;
      • Sustainable development of cities.
    4. Regional Planning
      • Concept of a region;
      • Types of regions and methods of regionalisation;
      • Growth centers and growth poles;
      • Regional imbalances;
      • regional development strategies; environmental issues in regional planning;
      • Planning for sustainable development.
    5. Models, Theories and Laws in Human Geography
      • Systems analysis in Human geography;
      • Malthusian, Marxian and demographic transition models;
      • Central Place theories of Christaller and Losch;
      • Perroux and Boudeville;
      • Von Thunen s model of agricultural location;
      • Weber s model of industrial location;
      • Ostov’s model of stages of growth.
      • Heartland and Rimland theories;
      • Laws of international boundaries and

Geography Optional Syllabus Book pdf for UPSC Exam India 2021

UPSC Geography Optional Syllabus Paper– Paper II

  1. Physical Setting
    • Space relationship of India with neighboring countries;
    • Physiographic regions;
    • Structure and relief;
    • Drainage system and watersheds;
    • Mechanism of Indian monsoons and rainfall patterns,
    • Tropical cyclones and western disturbances Floods and droughts;
    • Climatic regions;
    • Natural vegetation;
    • Soil types and their distributions.
  2. Resources
    • Energy, minerals, biotic and marine resources;
    • Land, surface and ground water ,Forest and wild life resources and their conservation;
    • Energy crisis.
  3. Agriculture
    • Infrastructure: irrigation, seeds, fertilizers, power;
    • Institutional factors: land holdings, land tenure and land reforms;
    • Cropping pattern, agricultural productivity, agricultural intensity, crop combination, land capability;
    • Agro and social-forestry;
    • Green revolution and its socio-economic and ecological implications;
    • Significance of dry farming;
    • Livestock resources and white revolution;
    • aquaculture;
    • sericulture, apiculture, and poultry;
    • agricultural regionalization;
    • agro-climatic zones;
    • agro-ecological regions.
  4. Industry
    • Evolution of industries;
    • Locational factors of cotton, jute, textile, iron and steel, aluminum, fertilizer, paper, chemical and pharmaceutical, automobile, cottage, and agro-based industries;
    • Industrial houses and complexes including public sector undertakings;
    • Industrial regionalization;
    • New industrial policies;
    • Multinationals and liberalization;
    • Special Economic Zones;
    • Tourism including eco-tourism.
  5. Transport, Communication and Trade
    • Road, railway, waterway, airway, and pipeline networks and their complementary roles in regional development;
    • The growing importance of ports on national and foreign trade;
    • Trade balance;
    • Trade Policy;
    • Export processing zones;
    • Developments in communication and information technology and their impacts on economy and society;
    • Indian space program.
  6. Cultural Setting
    • Historical Perspective of Indian Society;
    • Racial, linguistic and ethnic diversities;
    • religious minorities;
    • major tribes, tribal areas, and their problems;
    • cultural regions;
    • Growth, distribution and density of population;
    • Demographic attributes: sex-ratio, age structure, literacy rate, work-force, dependency ratio, longevity;
    • migration (inter-regional, intra- regional and international) and associated problems;
    • Population problems and policies; Health indicators.
  7. Settlements
    • Types, patterns and morphology of rural settlements;
    • Urban developments;
    • Morphology of Indian cities;
    • Functional classification of Indian cities;
    • Conurbations and metropolitan regions;
    • urban sprawl;
    • Slums and associated problems;
    • town planning;
    • Problems of urbanization and remedies.
  8. Regional Development and Planning
    • Experience of regional planning in India;
    • Five Year Plans;
    • Integrated rural development programmes;
    • Panchayati Raj and decentralised planning;
    • Command area development;
    • Watershed management;
    • Planning for backward area, desert, drought-prone, hill, tribal area development;
    • multi-level planning;
    • Regional planning and development of island territories.
  9. Political Aspects
    • Geographical basis of Indian federalism;
    • State reorganization;
    • Emergence of new states;
    • Regional consciousness and interstate issues;
    • international boundary of India and related issues;
    • Cross border terrorism;
    • India s role in world affairs;
    • Geopolitics of South Asia and Indian Ocean realm.
  10. Contemporary Issues: Ecological issues
    • Environmental hazards: landslides, earthquakes, Tsunamis, floods and droughts, epidemics;
    • Issues relating to environmental pollution;
    • Changes in patterns of land use;
    • Principles of environmental impact assessment and environmental management;
    • Population explosion and food security;
    • Environmental degradation;
    • Deforestation, desertification and soil erosion;
    • Problems of agrarian and industrial unrest;
    • Regional disparities in economic development;
    • Concept of sustainable growth and development;
    • Environmental awareness;
    • Linkage of rivers;
    • Globalization and Indian economy.

Latest UPSC Sociology Optional Syllabus Book pdf | Civil Services (Mains) Sociology Optional Exam Syllabus India 2021

How to Choose the Best Books for Geography Optional Syllabus for UPSC

  • Geography Optional Book for UPSC Exam: While choosing the study material for Geography Optional for UPSC exam, you must keep in mind that the books that you choose must cover the entire Geography Optional for UPSC exam syllabus. It must cover all the important topics which can be asked in the Geography Optional for UPSC exam exam question paper.
  • Edition: The books that you choose should be of the most recent edition which must include the latest topics and syllabus.
  • Solved Sample Papers: A book with solved Geography Optional subject for UPSC exam sample papers will be of great help. Sample papers give you an insight into the UPSC exam pattern, type of questions and at the same time help you in analyzing your progress.

Paper-wise Best Books for UPSC Geography Optional Syllabus Book pdf Study Material

Check out the Paper-wise best books for all the paper sections of UPSC Geography Optional Syllabus exam in the tables below.

Best Books for Paper I : Geography Optional Syllabus

Look at the table below to know the important books for Geography Optional Syllabus Book for UPSC Exam.

Book name Author/Publisher Checkout
Physical Geography in Diagrams | UPSC & Other Competitive Exams | First Edition | By Pearson  R.B. Bunnett (Author), Seema Mehra Parihar (Author) Click Here
Kiran UPSC Certificate Physical And Human Geography MCQs (English Medium) IRS Shaikh Salman, Assistant Commissioner (Author) Click Here
Certificate Physical And Human Geography; Indian Edition Goh Cheng Leong (Author) Click Here

Best Books for Paper II : Geography Optional Syllabus

Look at the table below to know the important books for Paper II section wise.

Book Name Author/ Publisher Checkout
Indian and World Geography For Civil Services Preliminary and Main Examinations | 5th Edition Majid Husain  (Author)


Click Here
Geography Of India (The Gist of NCERT) VIth to XIIth Useful for all Competitive Exams Mahesh Kumar Barnwal (Author) Click Here

Best Books for Previous Year Question Papers : Geography Optional Syllabus

This section of UPSC Geography Optional Syllabus Book pdf exam has topics related to previous year question papers in English language. Candidates should also be updated with the latest information .

Book Name Author/ Publisher Checkout
IAS Geography (Main) Topicwise Unsolved Papers (1986-2019) New Vishal’s Editorial Board (Author) Click Here

Read More:

15 Years Topicwise Solutions of Previous Years’ Papers (2002-2019) Geography IAS MAINS Q&A Geography IAS Mains Q&A For IAS & PCS Examinations

FAQs on Geography Optional Syllabus Preparation Books

Q: Which are the best books for human geography of UPSC optional geography?

A: Best books for Human Geography of UPSC Optional geography pdf is Kiran UPSC Certificate Physical And Human Geography MCQs (English Medium) and Certificate Physical And Human Geography Indian Edition.

Q: What are main topics in physical geography for optional UPSC CSE?

A: Main topics in physical geography for optional upsc is Geomorphology , Climatology and this topic are briefly explain in the book Physical Geography in Diagrams | UPSC & Other Competitive Exams | First Edition | By Pearson.

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